Effect of Exercise and/or Spirulina maxima On Body Composition In Overweight/Obese Humans
Hernadez Lepe, Marco Antonio
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Overweight and obesity are the main risk factors for cardiovascular diseases, which are the leading causes of death worldwide. As a consequence of this, it is indispensable to apply a nutritional intervention involving both a healthy diet adjustment and to promote an active lifestyle, since they are effective in preventing and reducing weight gain and excessive accumulation of body fat. PURPOSE: To determine the independent and synergistic effect of a systematic physical exercise program and/or Spirulina maxima supplementation on body composition in overweight and obese subjects. METHODS: Through a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, counterbalanced crossover study design, overweight and obese adults (N= 52, 25.12 ± 4.88 y, 1.71 ± 0.11 m, 88.14 ± 16.99 kg) were evaluated during a 12 wk of 4.5 g a day of supplementation (6 wk Spirulina maxima and 6 wk placebo) and/or a systematic physical exercise program (three days a week 20 to 30 min of aerobic exercise with intensities between 50% and 80% of maximum heart rate (HR max) and two days 20 to 30 min between 80% and 90% of HR max using high-intensity interval training (HIIT) intervention); the participants were divided in four groups: exercise and Spirulina maxima supplementation (ES), exercise and placebo supplementation (E), Spirulina maxima supplementation without exercise (S), and the control one, placebo without exercise (C). Body weight, body mass index (BMI) and body fat percentage (BFP) were assessed. Differences between treatments comparisons in all response variables were made using and ANOVA test. The present study was approved by bioethics committee of Universidad Autónoma de Ciudad Juárez. RESULTS: The differences between individuals usually are of wide range, for that reason the results are shown like differences between final and initial evaluations. All the treatments showed statistical differences compared with the control in body weight (kg) (ES= -2.36 ± 0.84, E= -0.89 ± 0.68, S= -0.91 ± 0.73, C= 0.04 ± 1.28), BMI (kg.m- 2) (ES= -0.72 ± 0.41, E= -0.26 ± 0.29, S= -0.31 ± 0.48, C= 0.01 ± 0.44), and BFP (%) (ES= -1.15 ± 0.20, E= -0.49 ± 0.21 S= -1.46 ± 0.45, C= -0.04 ± 0.13). CONCLUSION: Spirulina maxima intake joint a HIIT have an individual and a synergistic effect on body composition (decrease of body weight, BMI and BFP) in overweight and obese adults.
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