US Obesity Mortality Trends and Associated Noncommunicable Diseases Contributing Conditions Among White, Black, and Hispanic Individuals by Age from 1999 to 2017
Diaz Torres, Beatriz Araceli
de Cosio, Federico Gerardo
Cifuentes, Miriam Patricia
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This study aims to assess the effect of obesity as an underlying cause of death in association with four main noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) as contributing causes of mortality on the age of death in White, Black, and Hispanic individuals in the USA. To estimate mortality hazard ratios, we ran a Cox regression on the US National Center for Health Statistics mortality integrated datasets from 1999 to 2017, which included almost 48 million cases. The variable in the model was the age of death in years as a proxy for time to death. The cause-of-death variable allowed for the derivation of predictor variables of obesity and the four main NCDs. The overall highest obesity mortality HR when associated with NCD contributing conditions for the year 1999–2017 was diabetes (2.15; 95% CI: 2.11–2.18), while Whites had the highest HR (2.46; 95% CI: 2.41–2.51) when compared with Black (1.32; 95% CI: 1.27–1.38) and Hispanics (1.25; 95% CI: 1.18–1.33). Hispanics had lower mortality HR for CVD (1.21; 95% CI: 1.15–1.27) and diabetes (1.25; 95% CI: 1.18–1.33) of the three studied groups. The obesity death mean was 57.3 years for all groups. People who die from obesity are, on average, 15.4 years younger than those without obesity. Although Hispanics in the USA have a higher prevalence of diabetes and cardiovascular disease (CVD), they also have the lowest mortality HR for obesity as an underlying cause of death when associated with CVD and cancer. While there is no obvious solution for obesity and its complications, continued efforts to address obesity are needed.